historical data

            THE HISTORICAL Information

The North Kazakhstan region is an integral part of an extensive historical heritage of the Kazakh nationality. In the 15th century there was an ethnic consolidation of creation of three hordes. The tribes of each Kazakh horde have been connected by the general nomadic routes and had the general ethnic territory. An average horde, in particular, occupied areas of the Central and Northeast Kazakhstan. The state association of the basic ethnic groups in the second half of the 15th century accelerated the process of its consolidation. The developed nationality from the second half of the 15-th century was known as “Kazakhs”. The basic occupation of the horde population was a nomadic cattle breeding, developed in the ancient time in steppes of Eurasia. An outstanding Kazakh scientist Shokan Ualihanov named the beginning of 18-th century as an awful time in lives of the Kazakh people, and 1723 – a year of great disaster. Jungar invasions into Kazakhstan were accompanied by people and cattle death, destruction of winterings and mass carting away on the north and the west. Having appeared in a difficult foreign policy conditions, governors of the Kazakh khanates saw a way out in the acceptance of citizenship and the patronage of the Russian state. The decree about construction of a new line of strengthening was issued on March, 26th, 1752. The building-up of the New Ishimsky line began. It should connect Omsk and Zverinogolovsky fortresses. St. Peter's fortress was put in July, 1752 on the right bank of Ishim and became the central fort of the line. Later the fortress has received the status of Petropavlovsk City.
In this difficult period khan Abylaj was one of the most authoritative statesmen of the Central Asia in the 18th century. Abylaj belonged to the senior branch of descendants of khan Zhanibek, the founder of the Kazakh khanate. Together with Abulmambet, the khan of an Average horde, sultan Abylaj accepted the Russian citizenship in 1740 and constantly maintained relations with the Russian authorities of Petersburg, Orenburg and Omsk.
Abylaj the khan is known as the far-sighted and wise politician possessing an outstanding diplomatic abilities and a talent of the statesman. It’s thanks to the strategic flexibility and the maneuverability of his foreign policy, it was possible to manage the integrity of the Kazakh statehood. His reign as a khan of all three Kazakh hordes (1771-1781) has been marked by the stabilization of political conditions, the increase of Kazakhstan prestige and the expansion of economic and cultural contacts with the people of the Central Asia and Russia. During the construction of St. Peter fortress Abylaj has exposed an indispensable condition - to open the auction for Kazakhs with Russia there. Thanks to khan Abylaj initiative, Petropavlovsk has grown as a large point of barter for a century.
The crowning of Abylaj was outlined in St. Peter's fortress. A sable fur coat, a cap and a sabre as an imperial gifts to the khan have been delivered there. But Abylaj has refused to arrive to the Peter and Paul Fortress for acknowledgement of his power legitimacy, being afraid of complications of relations of Russia and Kazakhstan with China. Later these gifts were handed over the khan without magnificent celebrations.
The History of the Region
The Peter and Paul Fort, initially conceived as a military-defensive, became later a political, trade and an economic and an administrative centre. The City of Petropavlovsk grew and developed owing to trading-exchange transit operations. Turnover of the Peter and Paul customs have especially increased in the first half of the 19th century, when transit caravan trade with Mongolia, China, Tashkent, Kokantom, Khiva was adjusted. On a boundary of the 19th and the 20th centuries markets and fairs were regularly spent in a city and vicinities. A hotel and an exchange court yard for trade in exclusively livestock products operated there.
After carrying out of bourgeois reforms in the second half of the 19th century the process of resettlement of peasants in northern regions of Kazakhstan amplified. The main stream of immigrants was observed from the central areas of Russia, northern provinces of Ukraine in days of carrying out Stolypin agrarian reform. The imperial government regulated and encouraged this process, giving benefits and loans to peasants for building. The following stage of resettlement (Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Russian, and Tatars) is connected with the virgin soil development in 50-s of 20th century. Settling of Tatars in Kazakhstan had started during the historical period of Mongol invasion in the 13th-15th centuries. In the 17th century Bukhara governors sent the Tatar mullahs to the Kazakh steppes for Islam distribution. The building of St. Peter Fortress led to the resettlement of merchants and peasants from among Tatars (Kazan, Tyumen, Qasim) to Northern Kazakhstan. Many Tatar settlements arose on borders, current Mamljutsky, Kyzylzharsky and M. Zhumabaev regions. The ancestors of present Germans have appeared in the North of Kazakhstan in the 18th century and their emigration proceeded up to the end of the 20th century.
The development of an economic infrastructure was promoted by the opening of station Petropavlovsk of the Trans-Siberian railway in 1894, which had considerably expanded turnover possibilities. The considerable part of livestock products (in particular, guts and the mutton lard), went to Moscow, Petersburg, Revel, Kazan, and abroad: to Vienna, Paris, Boston, Berlin and Hamburg. A part of commodities (cattle skin) was demanded in the USA and Turkey. Wholesale trade and cattle purchase particularly prospered. Up to one million cattle and small cattle was moved from Borovoye to the Peter and Paul slaughter-house by well-known “Jol” ( ).
In 1921 the building of Petropavlovsk-Kokchetav railway began, in 1927 this line was prolonged to station Borovoye Resort. In February, 1935 regular postal-passenger flights of light aircrafts of <АP> type were opened in Priishime.
Since October 10, 1929 a regular translation of local transfers of the Peter and Paul broadcasting centre has begun. In 1937 the Peter and Paul Teacher's Institute was opened.
In 1930th an industrial, a railway, a land management, an economic, a veterinary, a building, a co-operative, an agricultural, a wood and 4 pedagogical technical schools functioned in the region.
In 1920-1930th such well-known writers and scientists as M.Zhumabaev, I.P.Shuhov, S.Mukanov, G.Musrepov, S.Markov, V.Ivanov, G.Tveritin, M.Dauletbaev, S.Shajmerdenov, E.Buketov, G.Belger and Z.Syzdykov lived and worked in the North Kazakhstan oblast.
Since 1920 the local drama theatre has renewed its work. The cinema worked.
In 1930th 30 hospitals were built in the region. In 1932 the Kazakh regional institute of physical methods of treatment was opened in Petropavlovsk. P.A.Nefedov — the neuropathologist, the organizer of national public health services of the region was one of heads of institute.
The reprisals of 1930-1940th concerned Northern Kazakhstan too. Thousands of North Kazakhstanians were subjected to repression; the majority of temples and mosques were destroyed.
The industrial complex of the region was created in days of the Great Patriotic War. The equipment of 20 industrial enterprises was evacuated to Petropavlovsk in the first months of military operations. About 120 thousands of people from the North Kazakhstan went to the front, 55 thousands - to the labor army; more than 45 thousands were killed in battle. During the Great Patriotic War 53 North Kazakhstanians were awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union, 11 became holders of the Order of Glory. The military-industrial complex and CHP -1 were constructed in Petropavlovsk.
The difficulties of post-war agriculture restoration in 1954 were resolved at the expense of development of the virgin and fallow lands. The first group of virgin landers arrived to the North Kazakhstan area on March 1, 1954 from Alma-Ata, the second echelon arrived from Moscow. 19 new state farms were organized in the years of a Virgin Lands development.
In 1970-1980th there was a growth of industrial production, transport and construction industry. There were 92 industrial enterprises in the region, 14 of them submitted to the union and 38 — to the republic. As well as in many other regions of the country the North Kazakhstan area industry developed one-way and was focused, mainly, on formation and development of the enterprises of defensive character.
Since 1990 the development of multistructural economy with market relations began. Enterprises of the former defensive complex became a basis of mechanical engineering: JSC "PZTM", JSC “ZIKSTO”, “Plant named after S.M. Kirov”, "Munajmash", LLP " MLD Plant" and “PPEIM”. The processing industry is presented by 2 meat - processing plants and 34 small meat - processing shops. 16 creameries and 23 dairy shops work in Petropavlovsk. There are 165 mill complexes and minimills, nearby 300 bakeries in the region; a new breakthrough project is realizing now – building-up of biochemical industrial complex on production of bioethanol in Tajynsha.
During the transformation of agriculture there were created 5953 farms, 321 economic association, 11 joint-stock companies, and 4 production cooperatives. The total area of farmlands is 8, 4 million hectare.
The state network of cultural-educational establishments includes 355 objects of culture, regional Russian drama theatre named after N. Pogodin, the Kazakh Music and drama theatre named after S.Mukanov, a regional philharmonic society and puppetry, 270 libraries, 70 clubs and recreation centers. The television broadcasts on four local channels.
The administrative centre of the North Kazakhstan area is the city of Petropavlovsk, which claims its lineal descent since 1752, as St Peter's fortress, the major outpost on of the Presno-Gorkovskaya line of outposts. The necessity for bread and fodder promoted peasants settling round the fortress. Soldiers and dragoons had the right to build their own houses outside the fortress. The foothills were the most convenient place for this purpose. Streets gradually grew there, restricting to the river. For the purpose of safety the suburb was enclosed by fencing. An entry and an exit were protected by special sentries. In 1759 the first school for soldier's children was opened in fortress. The first coat of arms was confirmed on September 7, 1842. The image of a camel in a silver field on the hill, loaded with two bales and led by caravaneer is shown on it. In 19th century, keeping its strategic value, the city turned into the centre of trade and economic relations and spiritual contacts of the Kazakh and Russian people.
After a Great fire on May 2, 1849, which exterminated 450 houses, the new building of Petropavlovsk began in its upland.
The resettlement of peasants from the European part of Russia and the building of the Siberian railway promoted the development of the city. An agricultural production delivery to the Russian and European markets started. The oil went from Petropavlovsk to St.Petersburg, Moscow, Riga, Odessa, Samara, Vladivostok, and also to England, Germany and Denmark. Large enterprises appeared – a skinnery of Zenkov brothers, cattle-breeding raw materials processing plant of Swiss Akkola. Eventually the city became not only administrative, but also cultural city. Petropavlovsk is the native land of classics of the Kazakh literature: Sabit Mukanov, Gabit Musrepov, Magzhan Zhumabaev and Ivan Shuhov. Peter Ershov, the author of a world famous fairy tale “The Little Humpbacked Horse”, has spent his childhood in St. Peter and Paul fortress; Nikolay Tchizhov, a poet-Decembrist, lived in exile there, Sergey Durov, Feodor Dostoevsky's friend, a poet-petrashevets, served there; Yaroslav Gashek, the Czech writer, did an international work in days of Kolchak exemption; Pavel Vasilev, a bright original poet, studied there; an outstanding writers Vsevolod Ivanov and Sergey Markov made their first steps in the literature; a well-known fiction writer Alexander Kazantsev lived in the city. The life paths of poet Bajmagambet Ztulin and a talented translator George Tvertin held there, an outstanding Kazakh educator and democrat Shokan Ualihanov wrote F.M.Dostoevsky letters from Petropavlovsk. Tleuke Kupenin, a native of North Kazakhstan oblast, known as Shal Akin, played a major role in the Kazakh literature. Moldahmet Tyrbiev, an akyn-improvisator, is known far outside of Priishime. Legendary Kozhabergen Zhyrau and Segiz Sery created their fine songs there.
Today the population of the regional centre is over 200 thousand people. The labour of many generations turned the city into a large centre of an economic and cultural life. The position of the North Kazakhstan on a joint of two major trunk-railways: Trans-Siberian and Transkazakhstan, the presence of such powerful industrial bases as Kuzbas, Ural Mountains and the Central Kazakhstan to the east, west and south of the region, and also a developing oil and gas complex of the frontier Tyumen region of the Russian Federation – all these factors are very important for its industrial development. During the last years the city of Petropavlovsk became the centre of the largest grain sowing and grain producing region of Kazakhstan, where more than 3 million hectares of land were sown with crops, and the gross grain makes 25 % of republican crop yields.

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