History

Whenever a city and where he got this name? Until now, most scientists agree that the settlement on the territory of modern Shymkent have already existed at the turn of the XI-XII centuries. However, there is a hypothesis and an earlier occurrence of Shymkent, is being made under found during archaeological excavations of graves belonging to an estimated V-VI centuries BC In the surviving written sources of the time, the first mention of Shymkent Persian historian Sharaf al - Din Ali (1425) in his book, Zafar Nama (Book of Victories ") when describing the military campaigns of Timur.
Is much debated and around the very name of the city. Based on the mention of Shymkent in various historical sources, scientists interpret the origin of his name differently: "garden city", "green city", "city, surrounded by turf. For example, the view on the connection name with the plant sod due to the fact that the word Shymkent consists of two roots of the Turkic "Chim" (Shym) - turf and the Iranian "Kent" - a city settlement. In another interpretation of the name originates from Sogdian (Iranian) "Cimino-chemen", ie meadow, blooming valley, or with the addition of "Kent" - green (flowering) city.
One way or another, but the location of the city favored the life of old people, as evidenced by the numerous traces of ancient settlements and found during the excavations the remains of a highly material culture. In the foothills, irrigated by the waters of rivers, successfully developed husbandry and viticulture, and the rich pastures of the river valleys and alpine meadows - livestock. The caravan routes linked the South Kazakhstan Region with Central Asia, the Middle East, Turkestan, China, nomads of the great belt of steppes.
For centuries, Shymkent has witnessed many historical events, the arena that often served as his territory. The city is often subjected to devastating invasions by conquerors. Through its territory carrying on a campaign army of Genghis Khan, after which Shymkent was part of the possessions of the descendants of the conqueror. As a result of successful military action Khans Ak-Orda and the Golden Horde, the city became part of Powers of Timur. In the early XV century. And then over the XVII century. Shymkent is the object of predatory invasions Dzungarian conquerors. Despite the countless wars and strife, adversely affecting the livelihoods of the population, Sairam oasis continues to represent a region of developed agriculture, horticulture, crafts.
In the XVIII century. and 1-st half of the XIX century. for mastering Shymkent fighting Bukhara and Kokand Khanate. In 1810-1864 gg. city was a military camp, under the authority of Kokand fortress with a great army and the residence of the governor of Khan. In 1864 the city was stormed by Russian troops and became an important transit point for connecting European Russia and western Siberia to Central Asia. By the end of XIX century. In the commercial city ranks were 19 manufactories, 87 hardware, grocery, 70 junk shops, 50 tea houses, 10 caravanserais 9, taverns, 27 bakery shops, and by the beginning of XX century. had 3 vegetable oil, 5 leather, 15 brick plants, 26 mills, 4 small cotton production, 15 nurseries and 15 soap-boiler.
Important role in the development of the city's economy has played founded in 1883, plant medicinal santonin (santonin, later chemical and pharmaceutical plant). Quality of Shymkent santonin was very high, so the production of the plant was in great demand in foreign markets. Natural-climatic conditions of South Kazakhstan region are favorable for the growth tsitvarnoy wormwood (darmina) - the main feedstock for the production santonin. Few corners of the globe grow wormwood with similar properties. Wonder twig of this remarkable plant is present on the arms of Shymkent.
In 1914, to mark the 50 anniversary of accession of Kazakhstan to Russia Empire, the city was named after the Russian general Chernyaev, but in 1921 returned to the original name. The twentieth century has become a new landmark in the history of the city. The share of people went to both the joy of new discoveries and achievements and sorrows of loss and frustration. It creates a new large industrial enterprises, mastered the new lands, significantly expand the network of educational institutions, institutions of science and culture, markedly improving the city's image. In 30-ies in Shymkent built a strong lead plant. The share of this industrial giant accounted for 70% of the total lead produced in the USSR. Put into operation oilseed plant, hosiery and mirror fabriki.V in 1932 established the base of agricultural aviation in the creation and development of the city's airport.
During the Great Patriotic War, Shymkent was one of the major cities of the USSR, which had been evacuated a number of industrial enterprises in the country. From the front line here was relocated 17 factories and mills. City of producing spare parts for tanks, shells, metal, lead, optical devices and other products. On the Great Patriotic War, fought tens of thousands shymkenttsev. Seven shymkenttsev were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
The post-50-80-ies marked growth of the economy. The city formed a new large-scale enterprises: Cotton Plant, astrakhan, hydrolytic cement factories, garment factory "Sunrise", enterprises of metal and concrete panel construction, plant Elektroapparat, the food industry for the production of meat and dairy products, beer, soft drinks and others. There are new neighborhoods, streets, avenues, parks and squares. Has increased the number of educational, medical and cultural institutions. Open new sports and entertainment complexes. A unique recreation area that includes the arboretum with an artificial lake, a zoo and hippodrome.
 

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