Kazakh Literature

Primary sources of Kazakh literature are the epics "Alyp Er Tonga", "Shu Batir," created in 11.3 centuries BC. The scientific studies proved that the events described in them are closely connected with the ancient history of the Kazakh people. Old-Turkic written documents showed that the Turkic tribes of the art word is poetic force, depth of thought and richness of content.
Folk heritage of Turkish literature represented by legends, tales, proverbs, sayings, heroic and liroepicheskimi poems. Among the samples of the heroic epic of the imperishable world's people are "Alpamys", "Қобыланды, favorite Kazakh people in social and everyday epics -" Қозы Қорпеш - Bayan Sulu "," Қыз Zhibek, later stories - Ayman - Sholpan " "Күлше-қыз", "Мақпал-қыз. From folklore written literature abundantly drew ideas, artistic images.
In 9-12 centuries with the development of oral folk literature and written literature forming the first concept of the imagery, artistic, educational value of art expression. Dictionary Diwaniyah lugat al-Turk, Mahmud Kashgar - vivid evidence of the cultural level of the Turkic peoples in the 11 century. Despite the linguistic character, the dictionary is considered a literary-historical and ethnographic collection. It also has several hundred lines of poetry, dozens of proverbs, sayings, wise aphorisms. Dastan "Kutadgu Bilig (didactic work" virtuous knowledge ") - a set of wise counsel, guidance Yusuf Khas Hajibi Balasaguni, one of the highly Turkic poets and writers. Dastan connects literature with oral poetry. The dialogue is combined with a form aytysa. Kazakh bard enriched the ancient writing poetry themes, genres, continued philosophical and educational traditions, have made a patriotic motives, features realistic images. The first prominent representatives are Codan Taisha, Asan Kaige, Kaztugan zhyrau. In their work reflects the historical events of the period of formation of the Kazakh khanate and the Kazakh people. On the development and flourishing of poetry, particularly influenced by the work activities and Dospambeta batir Shalkiiza zhyrau Tilenshiuly. Shalkiiz enriched Kazakh poetry and in poetry. In their work found its final form the basic principles of versification bard, which formed over the centuries. Occupying several centuries in the chronological periodization of Kazakh literature, poetry zhyrau often provoke debate and controversy, and only in the late 80's during the 20 th century was an appropriate assessment.
Prominent members of the poetry akyns 18 century - Cocteau and Shal. Motive works Koktema (1745-1818) - sorrows and hardships of the poor. In come down to our time poetichkom heritage akyn Shala (1748-1819) raised questions of religion, ethics and morality. 19 century marks a new stage in the history of Kazakh literature. Its development was due to creativity Otemisova M., S. Zharyngasova, S. Aronov. Great contribution to the development of the Kazakh poetry in the 2 nd half of 19 century have akyns B. Kozhagulov (Birzhan fats), A. Naymanbaev, A. Koramsauly (Akan Seri), J. toad.
Creation of a poet Zhambyl Zhabaeva developed under conditions of acute political events, which was seized by the Kazakh territory in the late XIX early XX centuries. From childhood actively taking part in the steppes of poetry competitions - aytysah, Zhambyl honed his talent improviser. His work is marked by sharp social orientation, expressed in exposing the arbitrariness of the big feudal lords and royal officials.
Abaya's creations (Ibrahim) Kunanbaev (1845-1904) opens a new stage of Kazakh realistic literature. Power Abaya, as the words of a great artist, with exceptional force manifested in the poem "octave". The main line of his work - the call to goodness, knowledge, culture, honest labor, justice, love for people and native land. Thin connoisseur of Russian poetry, Abai translated about 50 works by Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov. The works of the poet repeatedly issued in Russian and other languages.
In the 20's. 20 th century, the process of formation of prose in Kazakhstan. B. Mailin, M. Auezov, S. Seifullin, I. Zhansugurov, S. Mukanov, S. Sharipov, J. Tlepbergenov, G. Musrepov, Mustafin, U. Turmanzhanov, E. Bekenov and others wrote stories, essays , novels. They found the appropriate realistic. colors to create a bright human. images and characters, images, portraits of characters. Modern literature is developing towards profound revelation ext. Peace man, a truthful, imaginative display it. Since 1933 the Writers' Union of Kazakhstan works section of Russian literature. Novels I. Shukhov "Bitter Line" (1931; in the Kazakh language in 1972, translated A. Ospanova), "Hate" (1932, translated H. Esenzhanova) are significant works of modern literature of that period in the genre of the novel. During the 2-nd World War in the novel AA Beck "Volokolamsk Highway" (1943) established the heroic images of B. Momyshuly, I. Panfilov. In the postwar period, published the novel "The face of the sun" I. Shukhov (1950), "The reference point of the VD Vanyushina (1952). NI Anov in the novel "Wings of Song" (1959) reflected the socio-historical position of Kazakhstan in the 20 years shown in the product formation and development of national art, created images of talented artists (I. Baizakov, A. Kashaubaev, K. Munaitpas, AV . Zataevicha etc.). Issued novel IG Shchegolikhina "snowstorm" (1961), the tale GV Chernogolovinoy "Nedozhdlivoe time," novel "Risk Zone" (1981). In the novel, MD Simashko "Commissioner Zhangildin" created a vivid image of the son of the Kazakh people. Dm. Snegina in dilogii "In the morning and at noon" (1976, 1982), expanding the boundaries of historical subjects, has created images geroichiskih personalities, among which occupies a special place O. Zhandosov. The poetry of a new generation of talented poets: VA Antonov, AK Elkov, DE Ryabukha, LV Skalkovsky, FA Morgun, VA Smirnov, MI Chistyakov et al

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