Of the hoary antiquity to the present day came Kazakh folk legend about the supernatural, the supernatural origin of music, singing. She says that soaring high in the sky, the divine song, flying over the great Kazakh steppe nomads, sank very low, so people hear it, by nature endowed with great musical gift and abilities. And the saying: "God has placed in the heart of each particle Kazakh kyuya since his birth." It is no accident, perhaps, the people came, "outsider" who witnessed the life and lifestyle of the Kazakhs in the 18-19 centuries, not without surprise and admiration the very striking ability of people to create, rapid musical and poetic improvisation, broad involvement in the sphere music making the whole population - from infants to elders deep.
The children had fun playing on clay wind instruments - saz syrnae, tastauke, uskirike that "at hand" the master or the child acquired the strange shapes of animals, birds, fish, horses, multihead, brightly painted and covered with shiny glaze. In response to children's songs and musical games, mother's lullaby and songs of teaching adult men (osiet deer) kids learned about the world around us and become full members of their socio-cultural community.
Further independent life gave new artistic knowledge and experience through participation in youth games and entertainment with the mandatory participation of music - kayym-aytysah, tartysah, dialogical singing songs Kara domestic deer. The repertoire of "young age" enriched by the love lyrics and a variety of songs and rituals multi Kazakh wedding with mournful parting laments brides and cheerful youth fire-zharami, signaling a battle shock - dabyla, dauylpaza or shyndauyla to hunt the beast, or during the military campaign. In this regard, the "maturity", which carries poise and experience, was designed for the accomplishment of big government and public affairs, to protect the interests of intergeneric kind of song and poetry competitions - aytysah and the administration of folk ritual celebrations and ceremonies as - Zharshy - an organizer and performer of the ritual. And "old age" and "wisdom" accompanied by music and poetry mentoring young people, singing songs, philosophical reflections on the meaning of life and irrevocably bygone youth, about the sweet and so quickly time has passed you when your age - only twenty-five (zhiyrma demon). This was the age-old musical life-cycle of a Kazakh nomad, constantly reproduced from year to year, from generation to generation, ensuring the full functioning of various folk musical traditions and gave rise to well-known lines of the great Abay:
"... The doors opened to the world of song for you.
The song accompanies the land of ashes, groaning.
Song - the eternal companion of the joys of earth
So hearken to her sensitive and Prices, loving! "
All the spiritual heritage of the nation developed until the early twentieth century in the form of unwritten and transmitted "from mouth to mouth" from father to son, from a teacher - a student from the past - in the future. Nomadic and semi-nomadic type of economy predetermined characteristic folk instruments and musical traditions, and their "built into" the life and the life of the Kazakh society and is inseparable from other forms of artistic creation - the verbal and poetic.
At the early stage of development of the music was completely subordinated to utility service needs of an ancient nomadic society and was accompanied by a major religious and personal ceremony. Difficulties during the formation of the Kazakh ethnic group major epics-zhyr, performed zhyrau (native epic traditions), and were originally connected with the administration of military rituals of magic and the cult of ancestors. In the folk memory survived more than a hundred tales, each of them - thousands of lines of poetry, performed to the accompaniment kyl-Kobyzev - bow musical instrument with two strings of horsehair or pinch tool - dombra. As one of the most beloved genres of folk arts, heroic and lyrical everyday epics "Koblandy", "Alpamys", "Er Targyn", "Kambar", "Kiz Zhibek", "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan-Sulu," Enlik and Köbök "and many others for bringing this to the descendants of the legendary, mythological formerealnye dokazahskoy historical events and actual Kazakh history.
Hatched later archaic samples of instrumental music people - Cui - also served at the stage of its emergence magical function. The origin of the two traditions - the epic and instrumental linked in the popular mind and tradition with the name of a legendary saint - Korkyt - the first bard and shaman, "his father kyuev" and creator of a musical instrument - kyl-Kobyzev. However Kobyzev, structure and names of the parts which embodied the characteristic of shamanic concepts of 3-tiered model of the universe (upper, middle and lower worlds), Cork's great legacy left to posterity - kobyzovye Cui - "peel", "Zhelmaya" (The name of the sacred camel " ), "Targ tana" ( "spotted calf"), "Elimay" ( "O, my homeland"), "Ushardyn uluy" ( "Howl Ushar"), etc. Some of them had the onomatopoeic nature and transmit voice wildlife part - is a philosophical meditation on the meaning of existence, life and death. But in all the works easily perceptible to the ear kyuya passing from one to another and repetitive musical motives - though come to life in the sounds Kobyzev words of the ancient prayers, commands, spells, addressed to God, spirits, supernatural forces.
In ancient times goes and the history of Dabrowa and sybyzgovoy instrumental traditions. Evidence of ancient origin Dabrowa music became archaeological discovery: the excavations at the ancient city of Khorezm were found terracotta figurines musicians playing plucked dvuhstrunkah. Scientists note that Horezmian dvuhstrunki, come about at least two thousand years ago, are typological similarity with the Kazakh dombra and was one of the common tools of the early nomads who lived on the territory of Kazakhstan.
The most archaic examples of Dabrowa and sybyzgovoy music include Cui-legend with the names of birds and animals - "Akku" ( "The Swan"), "Kaz" (Gus), "Nar" ( "Camel"), Cui of lame and unfortunate creatures hunting - "Aksak kiz" ( "lame girl"), "Aksak wild ass" ( "lame wild ass"), Cui, laments about the drowning child and the baby animals - "Jorge ayu" ( "Bear-pacer"), "Zarlau" ( "Lament"), "Zhetym kiz" ( "Orphan Girl"), etc. All of them are preserved remnants of ancient forms of religion, cults and representations of the totem of the people and still carry the living history silently gone millennia.
Only by 19 century Kazakh music is released from the chains shackling of religion and ritual, and begins to develop as self-sufficient artistic creativity. This period was a truly spiritual renaissance of the nation, who gave the flowering major musical traditions of the people - the instrumental, song, akynskoy. On the vast territory of Kazakhstan formed various local professional musicians and performing schools, with each region offers a kind of "specialization" in the development of specific traditions. Thus, the territory of western Kazakhstan has been a central area in the development of Dabrowa kyuya tokpe and Sarah arch area (Central Kazakhstan) - the epicenter of the vocational tracks, the south-western region (Karmakchinsky district) to keep and develop the rich tradition of epic skazitelstva and Zhetysu - traditions aytysa - adversarial Art akyns-improvisers. Names Kurmangazy Dauletkereya, Tattimbeta Kazangap, Dina, Biržai, Achan, Zhayau Musa, Estaya, Ibraya, sledges, Madi, Mukhit, Abaya, Kenena Azerbaev went down in history not only Kazakh, but also the world's musical culture. Their work, distinguished by a bright personality style, characteristic of imagery and terms of music and expressive means of pride, classics of Kazakh musical culture. By creating high art and an introduction to ordinary people "divine mystery" - the music, they enjoy life with great love and respect in the society and have always been at the center of attention and attraction. The best of the best people are appropriating the high rank - Salov and sulfur. Creative activity of professional musicians in the 19 th century, as a rule, not confined to performing or composing a sphere, but includes all variety of artistic forms - poetic improvisation, elocution, polished vocal technique, masterful possession of a musical instrument, the elements of theater and circus activities, which in many of the Kazakh steppe brought together artists from medieval musicians in Western Europe - jugglers, troubadours, trouveres, Meister and minnizingerami.
In the 20 century Kazakh musical culture is enriched by new forms and genres of music-making. For a small scale in the history of the length of time polyphony and the whole genre repertoire of classical European music - opera, symphony, ballet, instrumental concertos, a cantata, oratorio, ensemble, orchestral and choral performance, professional musicians has created a new school, based on the writing style of creativity . Based on the organic synthesis of national and European forms of content in 30-40-s of the 20 century the classics of Kazakh opera - "Kiz Zhibek" E. Brusilovsky, "Abai A. Zhubanov L. Hamidi," Birzhan and Sara M. Tulebaev. Their dramatic and musical foundation became the inexhaustible riches of Kazakh folklore and oral professional music. Staging opera became an arena where before the eyes of a modern audience turns old wedding and incendiary aytys akyns between the 19 th century Birzhanom and Sarah, where you can hear the full song hero's inner passions of the people's liberation revolt 19 th century poet and kuishi Makhambet and sad funereal and memorial song-cry zhoktau.
In the 60's and 70's. in the country reaches a peak, one of the most difficult genres of European instrumental music - a symphony in which the songs are as close in shape to lassicheskim - Symphony G. Zhubanova, K. Kuzhamyarova and AET has arisen a new genre synthesis - Symphony kyui. Big love from the national audience got the orchestral and choral interpretation of Kazakh monodicheskoy music. Especially won wide popularity of folklore-ethnographic Orchestra Otrar saz ", which consisted of old, gone from the practice of everyday existence Kazakh musical instruments, restored scientist and folklorist B. Sarybaev. In the orchestral sound Cui capture listeners gigantic power embodied Herculean images rapidity horse racing-bayga, captivating sound pictures boundless steppes and jubilation mass popular festivities. Unique face the team that created the leader and conductor,
composer and dombrist N. Tlendiev.
At the present stage of development in Kazakhstan formed a branched structure of musical culture. Here everyone can find something that he liked. Along with performance and composer creation in European styles in the country continue to develop traditional forms of music making, operates the world a massive rock music and pop music, jazz) and the religious music of the world of concessions, folklore and oral traditions of peoples living in Kazakhstan - the Uighurs, Koreans, Germans, Dungan , Russian, Tatar. In the Republic performing collectives of various artistic profile - State Symphony Orchestra, the Kazakh folk instruments. Kurmangazy, choir, folk dance ensemble, State Quartet, pop ensembles, brass and jazz bands. Kazakhstan - home to many outstanding performers of classical music worldwide - E. Serkebaeva, B. Tulegenova, G. Esimova, A. Dnishev, G. Kadyrbekov, J. Aubakirova, A Musakhodzhaeva and the cradle of stars uzykalnoy Kazakh diaspora abroad - M. Bisengalieva, E. Kurmangaliev sisters Nakipbekovyh. Today in the republic is actively operating specialized children's music school named. K. Baiseitova and A. Zhubanov, Almaty State Conservatory. Kurmangazy, National Academy of Music in Astana, the State Opera and Ballet. Abay Kazakh State Philharmonic. Djambula Kazakhconcert, Institute of Literature and Art. M. Auezov and other musical and educational, scientific and cultural institutions. Every year, our sovereign republic gathers talented youth at the festival "Days of New Music", "Zhiger", "Altyn Alma", International contest "Voice of Asia", and folk musicians - at the International festival of traditional music. Day after day, year after year, as before, the music sounds, and combines different eras and generations, linking past, present and future.
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